Ethnomusicology is defined as "the study of and cultural aspects of music and dance in local and global contexts." Formed from the Greek words ethnos (natio]] of music. Jeff Todd Titon has called it the study of "people making music." Although it is often thought of as a study of non-Western musics, ethnomusicology also includes the study of Western music from an anthropological or sociological perspective. Bruno Nettl (1983) believes it is a product of Western thinking, proclaiming "ethnomusicology as western culture knows it is actually a western phenomenon." Nettl believes that there are limits to extraction of meaning from an indigenous culture's music due to perceptual distance of the Western observer from the culture. However, the growing prevalence of scholars who study their own musical traditions, and an increasing range of different theoretical frameworks and research methodologies has done much to address criticisms such as Nettl's.
HistoryWhile musicology's traditional subject has been the history and literature of Western art music, ethnomusicologists study all music as a human social and cultural phenomenon. The primary precursor to ethnomusicology, comparative musicology, emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century through the practice of people such as Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, Constantin Brǎiloiu, Vinko Zganec, Franjo Ksaver, Carl Stumpf, Erich von Hornbostel, Curt Sachs and Alexander J. Ellis. Comparative musicology and early ethnomusicology tended to focus on non-Western music that was transmitted through oral traditions. But, in more recent years, the field has expanded to embrace all musical styles from all parts of the world.
The Society for Ethnomusicology has been the primary academic organization for the discipline of ethnomusicology since its inception in 1955.
Theories and methodsEthnomusicologists often apply theories and methods from cultural anthropology, cultural studies and sociology as well as other disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. Though some ethnomusicologists primarily conduct historical studies, the majority are involved in long-term participant observation. Therefore, ethnomusicological work can be characterized as featuring a substantial, intensive ethnographic component.
Some ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists examining music as an aspect of a culture. A well-known example of such work is Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies. Another is Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who intensively studied the music of the natives of Northern California. Additionally, Anthony Seeger, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, studied the music and society of the Suya people in Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Academic programsMany universities in North America and Europe now offer ethnomusicology classes and act as centers for ethnomusicological research. The following list includes graduate and undergraduate degree-granting programs (number in parentheses indicates year the program was founded).
In the United States:
- Brown University (1967)
- City University of New York
- Columbia University (1966)
- Indiana University
- Ohio State University
- Oberlin College
- University of California, Berkeley (1975)
- University of California, Davis
- University of California, Los Angeles (1958)
- University of California, Riverside
- University of California, Santa Barbara
- University of California, Santa Cruz
- University of Chicago
- University of Colorado, Boulder
- University of Hawai'i at Manoa
- University of Illinois
- University of Maryland, College Park
- University of Minnesota at Minneapolis
- University of Michigan
- University of New Mexico
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of Texas at Austin
- University of Washington
- Wesleyan University (1960?)
- The Society for Ethnomusicology
- International Council for Traditional Music
- SIL publications on Ethnomusicology listed by country
- Irish World Academy of Music and Dance
- Ethnomusicological study of African Pygmies
- ILAM International Library of African Music
- Links: Ethnomusicology, Folk Music, and World Music (University of Washington)
- Aesthetic Realism: A New Foundation for Interdisciplinary Musicology
- University of Washington Digital Collections – Ethnomusicology Musical Instrument Collection Images of musical instruments from around the world.
- Smithsonian Global Sound Library Track samples and purchases available
- International Council of Ethnodoxologists
- Review of Nettl's 2005 revised edition of "The Study of Ethnomusicology"
- Discovering the Music of Africa
- The World and Traditional Music Section at the British Library Sound Archive
ethnomusicology in Czech: Etnomuzikologie
ethnomusicology in German: Musikethnologie
ethnomusicology in Modern Greek (1453-): Εθνομουσικολογία
ethnomusicology in Spanish: Etnomusicología
ethnomusicology in French: Ethnomusicologie
ethnomusicology in Galician: Etnomusicoloxía
ethnomusicology in Italian: Etnomusicologia
ethnomusicology in Hebrew: אתנומוזיקולוגיה
ethnomusicology in Dutch: Etnomusicologie
ethnomusicology in Japanese: 音楽民族学
ethnomusicology in Norwegian: Etnomusikologi
ethnomusicology in Portuguese: Etnomusicologia
ethnomusicology in Slovak: Etnomuzikológia
ethnomusicology in Slovenian: Etnomuzikologija
ethnomusicology in Serbian: Етномузикологија
ethnomusicology in Finnish: Etnomusikologia
ethnomusicology in Turkish: Budun müzik bilimi
ethnomusicology in Chinese: 民族音乐学